Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Used In NEPA and Land Use/Access

The below glossary and list of acronyms was compiled from various sources and is a list of the more common terms used in conjunction with land management policy. Credit and thanks go to Del Albright, Sharetrails.Org/BlueRibbon Coalition (BRC) Ambassador and Land Use & Access Advocate and John Stewart Sharetrails.Org/BlueRibbon Coalition (BRC) Board Member, Natural Resources Consultant
California Association of 4 Wheel Drive Clubs and Land Use & Access Advocate, for compiling this information.

  • Abiotic:  Non-living. Climate is an abiotic component of ecosystems.
        
    Activity Plan:  see “Implementation Plan.”
        
    Adaptive Management:  A type of natural resource management that implies making decisions as part of an on-going process. Monitoring the results of actions will provide a flow of information that may indicate the need to change a course of action. Scientific findings and the needs of society may also indicate the need to adapt resource management to new information.
        
    Administrative Unit:  A National Forest, a National Grassland, a purchase unit, a land utilization project, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Land Between the Lakes, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, or other comparable unit of the National Forest System.
        
    Aerial Logging:  Removing logs from a timber harvest area by helicopter. Fewer roads are required, so the
    impact to an area is minimized.
        
    Affected Environment:  The natural environment that exists at the present time in an area being analyzed.
        
    Age Class:  An age grouping of trees according to an interval of years, usually 20 years. A single age class would have trees that are within 20 years of the same age, such as 1-20 years or 21-40 years.
        
    Airshed:  A geographic area that shares the same air.
        
    Allotment:  An area of land designated and managed for the grazing of livestock by one or more livestock operators with a prescribed number of livestock for a prescribed period of time.  It generally consists of public lands but may include parcels of private and other Federal or State-owned lands. Though an entire area may be divided into allotments, all land will not be grazed, because other uses, such as recreation or tree plantings, may be more important at a given time.
        
    Alternative Dispute Resolution:  Any process used to prevent, manage, or resolve conflicts using procedures other than traditional courtroom litigation or formal agency adjudication.

    Amendment:  The process for considering or making changes in the terms, conditions, and decisions of approved RMPs using the prescribed provisions for resource management planning appropriate to the proposed action or circumstances.  Usually only one or two issues are considered that involve only a portion of the planning area.
        
    Anadromous Fish:  Species of fish that mature in the sea and migrate into streams to spawn.

    Annual Maintenance. Work performed to maintain serviceability, or repair failures during the
    year in which they occur. Includes preventive and/or cyclic maintenance performed in the year in which it is scheduled to occur. Unscheduled or catastrophic failures of components or assets may need to be repaired as a part of annual maintenance. (Financial Health – Common Definitions for Maintenance and Construction Terms, July 22, 1998)
        
    Area:  A discrete, specifically delineated space that is smaller, and in most cases much smaller, than a Ranger District.
        
    Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC):  Special Area designation established through the Bureau’s land use planning process (43 CFR 1610.7-2) where special management attention is needed to protect and prevent irreparable damage to important historical, cultural, or scenic values, fish and wildlife resources, or other natural systems or processes, or to protect life and safety from natural hazards.  The level of allowable use within an ACEC is established through the collaborative planning process.  Designation of an ACEC allows for resource use limitations in order to protect identified resources or values.
        
    Aspect:  The direction a slope faces. A hillside facing east has an eastern aspect.
        
    ASQ (allowable sale quantity):  The amount of timber that may be sold within a certain time period from an area of suitable land. The suitability of the land and the time period are specified in the Forest Plan.
        
    Assessment:  The act of evaluating and interpreting data and information for a defined purpose.
        
    Aquifer:  A body of rock that is saturated with water or transmits water. When people drill wells, they tap water contained within an aquifer.
        
    AUM (animal unit month):  The quantity of forage required by one mature cow and her calf (or the equivalent, in sheep or horses, for instance) for one month.

  • Bark Beetle:  An insect that bores through the bark of forest trees to eat the inner bark and lay its eggs. Bark beetles are important killers of forest trees.
        
    Basal Area:  The area of the cross section of a tree trunk near its base, usually 4 and 1/2 feet above the ground. Basal area is a way to measure how much of a site is occupied by trees. The term basal area is often used to describe the collective basal area of trees per acre.
        
    Best Management Practices (BMP):  A suite of techniques that guide, or may be applied to, management actions to aid in achieving desired outcomes.  Best management practices are often developed in conjunction with land use plans, but they are not considered a land use plan decision unless the land use plan specifies that they are mandatory.  They may be updated or modified without a plan amendment if they are not mandatory.
        
    Big Game:  Large mammals, such as deer, elk, and antelope that are hunted for sport.
        
    Biological Control:  The use of natural means to control unwanted pests. Examples include introduced or naturally occurring predators such as wasps, or hormones that inhibit the reproduction of pests. Biological controls can sometimes be alternatives to mechanical or chemical means.
        
    Biological Diversity:  The number and abundance of species found within a common environment. This includes the variety of genes, species, ecosystems, and the ecological processes that connect everything in a common environment.
        
    Biomass:  The total weight of all living organisms in a biological community.
        
    Biome:  The complex of living communities maintained by the climate of a region and characterized by a distinctive type of vegetation. Example of biomes in North America include the tundra, desert, prairie, and the western coniferous forests.
        
    Biota:  The plant and animal life of a particular region.
        
    Biotic:  Living. Green plants and soil microorganisms are biotic components of ecosystems. BMP (Best Management Practices)- Practices designed to prevent or reduce water pollution.
        
    Board Foot:  A measurement term for lumber or timber. It is the amount of wood contained in an unfinished board 1 inch thick, 12 inches long, and 12 inches wide.
        
    Broadcast Burn:  A prescribed fire that burns a designated area. These controlled fires can reduce wildfire hazards, improve forage for wildlife and livestock, or encourage successful regeneration of trees.
        
    Browse:  Twigs, leaves, and young shoots of trees and shrubs that animals eat. Browse is often used to refer to the shrubs eaten by big game, such as elk and deer.
        
    Buffer:  A land area that is designated to block or absorb unwanted impacts to the area beyond the buffer. Buffer strips along a trail could block views that may be undesirable. Buffers may be set aside next to wildlife habitat to reduce abrupt change to the habitat.
        
    Bureau of Land Management (BLM):  Federal land management agency established by Federal Lands Policy Management Act.  The BLM manages more land – 258 million surface acres – than any other Federal agency. Most of this public land is located in 12 Western States, including Alaska. The Bureau, with a budget of about $1.8 billion, also administers 700 million acres of sub-surface mineral estate throughout the nation. The BLM’s multiple-use mission is to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Bureau accomplishes this by managing such activities as outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, mineral development, and energy production, and by conserving natural, historical, and cultural resources on the public lands.

  • Categorical Exclusion (CX or CE):  A category of actions (identified in agency guidance) that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment, and for which neither an environmental assessment nor an EIS is required (40 CFR 1508.4).

    NEPA – Categorical Exclusion (CatX)

    by:  John Stewart
    Natural Resources Consultant
    California Association of 4 Wheel Drive Clubs

    The term “NEPA” stands for National Environmental Policy Act and assures that federal agencies will consider the impact of an action on the human environment before decisions are made and the action is taken. NEPA establishes a specific documentation process requiring the agency to disclose the effect of actions affecting the environment.

    In an effort to reduce paperwork and time delays, the Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) provided an allowance (40 CFR 1500) for federal agencies to “categorically exclude” actions from public disclosure when it is determined that these actions do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. There is no reference to “categorically exclude” in NEPA.

    The key word is “significant”. If a federal agency determines that the impacts of a proposal are significant, it must prepare the highest level of disclosure documentation referred to as an environmental impact statement (EIS) and make the decision-making process open to the public prior to final agency action.

    In 1978, after extensive public review, CEQ amended federal regulations to clarify the intent of NEPA. The changes stressed that NEPA procedures must insure that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and before actions are taken. And, the information must be of high quality and accurate scientific analysis. Most important, NEPA documents must concentrate on the issues that are truly significant to the action in question, rather than amassing needless detail.

    NEPA’s purpose is not to generate paperwork–even excellent paperwork–but to foster excellent action. The NEPA process is intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on understanding environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment.

    Categorical Exclusions (CatEx) are actions that federal agencies can deem exempt from NEPA and therefore, do not require disclosure prior to final agency decisions. The term is applied to actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the environment:  typically small, routine actions.

    Exemption from NEPA does not imply exemption from other federal laws and regulations. The difference is how the agency chooses to document its compliance with all federal laws and the public’s ability to access and review these documents. Categorical Exclusions are not applied to proposed actions that affect wetlands or threatened and endangered species.

    While a review and assessment of projects is conducted prior to CatEx determination, there is no formal public comment period for projects that fall under categorical exclusions and they are not subject to appeal by the public

    While NEPA requires that all agency actions be documented, it imposes no enforcement criteria to ensure compliance. Compliance is left to the courts. Legal action in 2005 (Earth Island Institute v. Ruthenbeck) restricted agency use of Categorical Exclusions.

    Cable Logging:  Logging that involves the transport of logs from stump to collection points by means of suspended steel cables. Cable logging reduces the need for the construction of logging roads.
        
    Canopy:  The part of any stand of trees represented by the tree crowns. It usually refers to the uppermost layer of foliage, but it can be use to describe lower layers in a multi-storied forest.
        
    Cavity:  A hole in a tree often used by wildlife species, usually birds, for nesting, roosting, and reproduction.
        
    Chemical Control:  The use of pesticides and herbicides to control pests and undesirable plant species. Clear Cut:  A harvest in which all or almost all of the trees are removed in one cutting.
        
    Citizen Wilderness Proposal (CWP):  Areas that have been inventoried and proposed for Wilderness designation by citizens.
        
    Climax:  The culminating stage in plant succession for a given site. Climax vegetation is stable, self-maintaining, and self-reproducing.
        
    Closed:  Generally denotes that an area is not available for a particular use or uses; refer to specific definitions found in law, regulations, or policy guidance for application to individual programs.  For example, 43 CFR 8340.0-5 sets forth the specific meaning of “closed” as it relates to OHV use, and 43 CFR 8364 defines “closed” as it relates to closure and restriction orders.
        
    Coarse Filter Management:  Land management that addresses the needs of all associated species, communities, environments, and ecological processes in a land area. (See fine filter management.)
        
    Collaboration:  A cooperative process in which interested parties, often with widely varied interests, work together to seek solutions with broad support for managing public and other lands. This may or may not involve an agency as a cooperating agency.
        
    Collaborative Partnerships and Collaborative Stewardship:  Refers to people working together, sharing knowledge and resources, to achieve desired outcomes for public lands and communities within statutory and regulatory frameworks.

    Cooperative Road Right-of-Way Agreement. A contractual document that defines the conditions under which the parties agree to do business and incur fiscal obligations in the construction, use, and maintenance of a shared road system. Within the terms of a Cost Share Agreement, easements are exchanged and a Road Maintenance Agreement is developed.
        
    Collector Roads:  These roads serve small land areas and are usually connected to a Forest System Road, a county road, or a state highway.
        
    Composition:  What an ecosystem is composed of. Composition could include water, minerals, trees, snags, wildlife, soil, microorganisms, and certain plant species,
        
    Comprehensive Evaluation Report (CER):  A Forest Service planning document that evaluates ecological, social, and economic conditions and trends that contribute to sustainability.
        
    Concessionaire/Concessioner:  An indiivdual or a private company that is under permit or contract to operate a business on Federal land (e.g., campground, parking lot, ice cream stand, or boat launch).  Not all concessionaires accept National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes, based on the terms of their contracts.
        
    Conformance:  Means that a proposed action shall be specifically provided for in the land use plan or, if not specifically mentioned, shall be clearly consistent with the goals, objectives, or standards of the approved land use plan.
        
    Conifer:  A tree that produces cones, such as a pine, spruce, or fir tree.
        
    Connectivity (of habitats):  The linkage of similar but separated vegetation stands by patches, corridors, or “stepping stones” of like vegetation. This term can also refer to the degree to which similar habitats are linked.
        
    Conservation Agreement:  A formal signed agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service and other parties that implements specific actions, activities, or programs designed to eliminate or reduce threats or otherwise improve the status of a species.  CA’s can be developed at a State, regional, or national level and generally includes multiple agencies at the State and Federal level, as well as tribes.  Depending on the types of commitments the BLM makes in a CA and the level of signatory authority, plan revisions or amendments may be required prior to signing the CA, or subsequently in order to implement the CA.
        
    Conservation Strategy:  A strategy outlining current activities or threats that are contributing to the decline of a species, along with the actions or strategies needed to reverse or eliminate such a decline or threats. Conservation strategies are generally developed for species of plants and animals that are designated as BLM Sensitive species or that have been determined by the Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service to be Federal candidates under the Endangered Species Act.
        
    Consistency:  means that the proposed land use plan does not conflict with officially approved plans, programs, and policies of tribes, other Federal agencies, and State and local governments to the extent practical within Federal law, regulation, and policy.
        
    Consumptive Use:  Use of resources that reduces the supply, such as logging and mining.
        
    Contour:  A line drawn on a map connecting points of the same elevation.
        
    Cooperating Agency:  Assists the lead Federal agency in developing an EA or EIS.  The Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA defines a cooperating agency as any agency that has jurisdiction by law or special expertise for proposals covered by NEPA (40 CFR 1501.6).  Any tribe or Federal, State, or local government jurisdiction with such qualifications may become a cooperating agency by agreement with the lead agency.
        
    Corridor:  Elements of the landscape that connect similar areas. Streamside vegetation may create a corridor of willows and hardwoods between meadows where wildlife feed.
        
    Cover:  Any feature that conceals wildlife or fish. Cover may be dead or live vegetation, boulders, or  undercut streambanks. Animals use cover to escape from predators, rest, or feed.
        
    Cover Forage Ratio:  The ratio of hiding cover to foraging areas for wildlife species.  
        
    Cover Type (forest cover type):  Stands of a particular vegetation type that are composed of similar species. The aspen cover type contains plants distinct from the pinyon-juniper cover type.
        
    Created Opening:  An opening in the forest cover created by the application of even-aged silvicultural practices.
        
    Critical Habitat:  Areas designated for the survival and recovery of federally listed threatened or endangered species.
        
    Crown Height:  The distance from the ground to the base of the crown of a tree.
        
    Cultural Resource:  The remains of sites, structures, or objects used by people in the past; this can be
    historical or pre-historic.
        
    Cumulative Effects:  Effects on the environment that result from separate, individual actions that, collectively, become significant over time.

  • dbh (diameter at breast height):  The diameter of a tree 4 and 1/2 feet above the ground on the uphill side of the tree.
        
    Decision criteria:  The rules and standards used to evaluate alternatives to a proposed action on National Forest land. Decision criteria are designed to help a decisionmaker identify a preferred choice from the array of alternatives.

    Decommission. Demolition, dismantling, removal, obliteration and/or disposal of a deteriorated or otherwise unneeded asset or component, including necessary cleanup work. This action eliminates the deferred maintenance needs for the fixed asset. Portions of an asset or component may remain if they do not cause problems nor require maintenance. (Financial Health – Common Definitions for Maintenance and Construction Terms, July 22, 1998)
        
    Decking area:  A site where logs are collected after they are cut and before they are taken to the landing area where they are loaded for transport.

    Deferred Maintenance. Maintenance that was not performed when it should have been or when it was scheduled and which, therefore, was put off or delayed for a future period. When allowed to accumulate without limits or consideration of useful life, deferred maintenance leads to deterioration of performance, increased costs to repair, and decrease in asset value. Deferred maintenance needs may be categorized as critical or non-critical at any point in time. Continued deferral of non-critical maintenance will normally result in an increase in critical deferred maintenance. Code compliance (e.g. life safety, ADA, OSHA, environmental, etc.), Forest Plan Direction, Best Management Practices, Biological Evaluations, other regulatory or Executive Order compliance requirements, or applicable standards not met on schedule are considered deferred maintenance.
        
    DEIS (Draft Environmental Impact Statement):  The draft version of the Environmental Impact Statement that is released to the public and other agencies for review and comment
        
    Designated Right-of-Way Corridor:  A parcel of land, usually linear in shape, that is identified through Secretarial Order in a land use plan or by other management decision as a preferred location for existing and future rights-of-way grants.
        
    Designated road, trail, or area:  A National Forest System road, a National Forest System trail, or an area on National Forest System lands that is designated for motor vehicle use pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51 on a motor vehicle use map (MVUM). (36 CFR 212.1, FSM 7705) Forest Road Atlas. The Forest Road Atlas is a key component of the Forest ransportation Atlas and, consistent with the road inventory, includes all classified and inventoried unclassified roads on Shawnee National Forest System lands. The road atlas includes, at a minimum, the location, jurisdiction, and road management objectives for classified roads and bridges, the location of unclassified roads, and management actions taken to change the status of unclassified roads.
        
    Desired Conditions:  Narrative descriptions of the ecological, social, and economic attributes of the plan area toward which management is directed.
        
    Desired future condition:  Land or resource conditions that are expected to result if goals and objectives are fully achieved.
        
    Developed recreation:  Recreation that requires facilities that, in turn, result in concentrated use of the area. For example, skiing requires ski lifts, parking lots, buildings, and roads. Campgrounds require roads, picnic tables, and toilet facilities.

    Director (BLM Director):  The national Director of the BLM.
        
    Directional Drilling:  The intentional deviation of a well bore from a vertical position to reach subsurface areas off to one side from the drilling site.
        
    DOCUMENTATION OF NEPA ADEQUACY (DNA):  A worksheet for determining and documenting that a new, site-specific proposed action both conforms to the existing land use plan(s) and is adequately analyzed in existing NEPA documents.  The signed conclusion in the worksheet is an interim step in BLM’s internal analysis process and is not an appealable decision.  A Documentation of NEPA Adequacy (DNA) identifies previously prepared NEPA documents which adequately describe the environmental consequences of a newly proposed action. In most cases, a DNA is prepared without additional public involvement.
        
    Dispersed recreation:  Recreation that does not occur in a developed recreation site, such as hunting, backpacking, and scenic driving.
        
    Disturbance:  Any event, such as forest fire or insect infestations that alter the structure, composition, or functions of an ecosystem.
        
    DM (Decision Memo):  This type of decision is used when the environmental analysis has been “categorically excluded” (CE) from documentation in an EA or an EIS. Ordinarily, decisions documented in a Decision Memo are not subject to administrative appeal; the exception is the category of small timber sales (unless there has been no expression of public interest in the sale).
        
    DN (Decision Notice):  This type of decision is used when an Environmental Assessment (EA) is conducted and it is concluded that no significant environmental impact will result from implementing the preferred alternative. (If a significant environmental impact will result, an EIS must be prepared.) Decisions documented in a Decision Notice are subject to administrative appeal unless there has been no expression of public interest in the action.

  • Ecosystem diversity:  The variety and relative extent of ecosystem types, including their composition, structure, and processes within all or a part of an area of analysis (36 CFR 219.16).
        
    End of Scoping:  The date on which your response to the formal scoping statement is due; this is usually 30 days after release of the scoping statement. Especially valuable at this early stage are your concerns regarding potential environmental impacts of our proposed actions. Scoping determines the “scope” of the subsequent environmental analysis conducted by an interdisciplinary team of resource specialists.
        
    Endangered Species:  As defined in the Federal Endangered Species Act, any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.  For terrestrial species, the USFWS determines endangered status.
        
    Entrance Fee:  Fees charged to access lands managed by National Park Serivce or Fish and Wildlife Service,  National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes generally cover these fees.
        
    Environmental Assessment (EA):  A public document for which a federal agency is responsible that serves to; (a) briefly provide sufficient evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or a finding of no significant impact; (b) aid an agency’s compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) when no Environmental Impact Statement is necessary; (c) Facilitate the preparation of a statement when one is necessary.  An EA includes brief discussions of the need for the proposal and of the environmental impacts of the proposed action and other alternatives.
        
    Environmental Management System (EMS):  The part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining the environmental policy of the planning unit (36 CFR 219.16).
        
    Evaluation (Plan Evaluation):  The process of reviewing the land use plan and the periodic plan monitoring reports to determine whether the land use plan decisions and NEPA analysis are still valid and whether the plan is being implemented.
        
    Expanded Amenity Fee:  Fees charged for “extras” that aren’t basic entrance or standard amenity fees and aren’t generally covered by the National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes.  Examples include campgrounds, boat launches, cabins, and guided tours.  National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes generally do not cover these fees; however, Senior and Access Passes may qualify Pass owners for some discounts.

    Environmental Impact Statement (EIS):  This document discloses the environmental impacts to be expected from the proposed action and from specific alternatives to the proposed action. An EIS is prepared when significant environmental impacts are anticipated. Your comments are requested within 45 days of release of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Your comments are considered prior to making the final decision and are responded to in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS).

    NEPA – What is an EIS?

    by:  John Stewart
    Natural Resources Consultant
    California Association of 4 Wheel Drive Clubs

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) assures that federal agencies will consider the impact of an action on the human environment before decisions are made and the action is taken. It requires that NEPA documents concentrate on issues that are significant to the action in question. The NEPA process is intended to help public officials make better decisions based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the human environment.

    In accordance with the NEPA Process, the agency conducts an interdisciplinary review of the environmental effects of the proposal so that the relevant environmental information is available to citizens and public officials.  Major federal actions that may significantly affect the human environment require that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) be prepared. The EIS process includes a formal public involvement process.

    “EIS” is the abbreviation for environmental impact statement, a document prepared to describe the effects of proposed activities on the environment.

    “Environment” is defined as the natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that environment. This means that the “environment” considered in an EIS includes land, water, air, structures, living organisms, environmental values at the site, and social, cultural, and economic factors.

    An “impact” is a change or consequence that results from an activity. Impacts can be positive or negative, or both.  An EIS describes impacts, as well as ways to “mitigate” impacts. To “mitigate” means to lessen or remove negative impacts.

    Therefore, an EIS, is a document that describes the impacts on the environment as a result of a proposed action. It also describes impacts of alternatives, as well as plans to mitigate the impacts.

    What is a Programmatic EIS?
    A Programmatic EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of broad agency actions such as the setting of national policies or the development of programs.

    A Programmatic EIS is general in nature and describes guidelines for site specific evaluations and management decision.

  • Federal Land:  Land owned by the United States, without reference to how the land was acquired or which Federal Agency administers the land, including mineral and coal estates underlying private surface.
        
    Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA):  Public Law 94-579, which gives the BLM legal authority to establish public land policy, to establish guidelines for administering such policy and to provide for management, protection, development and enhancement of the public land.  Read more on this (FLPMA) http://archive.sharetrails.org/node/7980
        
    Federally listed threatened and endangered species:  A plant or animal that is in danger of extinction throughout all, or a significant portion, of its range. Endangered species are identified by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
        
    Fire management plan:  A strategic plan that defines a program to manage wildland and prescribed fires and documents the Fire Management Program in the approved land use plan. The plan is supplemented by operational plans such as preparedness plans, pre-planned dispatch plans, prescribed fire plans, and prevention plans.
        
    Forest road or trail:  A road or trail wholly or partly within or adjacent to and serving the National Forest System that the Forest Service determines is necessary for the protection, administration, and utilization of the National Forest System and the use and development of its resources.
        
    Forest transportation atlas:  A display of the system of roads, trails, and airfields of an administrative unit. The Transportation Atlas is the official repository of transportation facility decisions for the Modoc National Forest. It contains a current record of Forest transportation facilities. The Forest Service Infrastructure database (INFRA) is used for the storage and analysis of information in the Transportation Atlas.
        
    Forest transportation Facility:  A forest road or trail or an airfield that is displayed in a forest transportation atlas, including bridges, culverts, parking lots, marine access facilities, safety devices, and other improvements appurtenant to the forest transportation system.
        
    Forest transportation system:  The system of National Forest System roads, National Forest System trails, and airfields on National Forest System lands.

    Forest Transportation System Management. The planning, inventory, analysis, classification, record keeping, scheduling, construction, reconstruction, maintenance, decommissioning, and other operations undertaken to achieve environmentally sound, safe, cost-effective, access for use, protection, administration, and management of National Forest System lands.

    Functional Class. Arterial: Provides service to large land areas. Connects with other arterials or public highways. Collector: Serves smaller land areas than arterials. Connects arterials to local roads or terminal facilities. Local: Single purpose road. Connects terminal facilities (e.g. campgrounds, log landings, etc.) with collectors or arterials.

  • Geographic Information System (GIS):  A computer system capable of storing, analyzing, and displaying data and describing places on the earth’s surface.
        
    Geophysical Exploration:  Efforts to locate deposits of oil and gas resources and to better define the sub-surface.
        
    Global Positioning System (GPS):  A hand-held device used to receive satellite navigation data and translate them into a position on the ground.  GPS systems are used as a land survey aid to correlate physical position with points on a map.  GPS “track logs” are used to determine routes on the ground.
        
    Goal:  A broad statement of a desired outcome.  Goals are usually not quantifiable and may not have established time frames for achievement.
        
    Guidelines:  Actions or management practices that may be used to achieve desired outcomes, sometimes expressed as best management practices.  Guidelines may be identified during the land use planning process, but they are not considered a land use plan decision unless the plan specifies that they are mandatory.  Guidelines for grazing administration must conform to 43 CFR 4180.2.
        
    Guzzler:  General term covering guzzler, wildlife drinker, or tenaja.  A natural or artificially constructed structure or device to capture and hold rain water and make it accessible to small and/or large animals.  Most guzzlers involve above or below ground piping, storage tanks, and valves.  Tenajas are natural depressions in rock, which trap and hold water.  To some tenajas, steps are sometimes added to improve access and reduce mortality from drowning.

  • Historical range of variability:  The variability in composition, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems before Euro-American influence, including the variation of physical and biological conditions within an area due to climatic fluctuations and disturbances of wind, fire, and flooding.
        
    House Concurrent Resolution (H.Con.Res.):  A concurrent resolution is a legislative proposal that must be passed by the House and Senate but does not require the signature of the President and does not have the force of law. Concurrent resolutions are generally used to express the sentiment of Congress or to amend the internal rules of the House and Senate.
        
    House Simple Resolution (H.Res.):  A simple resolution is a legislative proposal that does not require the approval of the other chamber or the signature of the President and does not have the force of law. Simple resolutions are used only to change the internal rules of one of the chambers of Congress or to express the sentiments of one of the houses.

  • Implementation Decisions:  Decisions that take action to implement land use plan decisions. They are generally appealable to IBLA under 43 CFR 4.40.
        
    Implementation Plan:  A site-specific plan written to implement decisions made in a land use plan. An implementation plans usually selects and applies best management practices to meet land use plan objectives. Implementation plans are synonymous with “activity” plans. Examples of implementation plans include interdisciplinary management plans, habitat management plans, and allotment management plans.
        
    Indian tribe (or tribe):  Any Indian group in the conterminous United States that the Secretary of the Interior recognizes as possessing tribal status (listed periodically in the Federal Register).

    INFRA. (Infrastructure Database) is a Forest Service corporate database application that provides for a consistent and accurate inventory, and financial data, of Forest Service physical assets on Forest Service lands.

    Interim Management Policy:  The BLM management policy for lands under Wilderness review which lays out the requirements for management of WSA’s so as “not to impair their suitability as wilderness.”
        
    Invasive species:  A species that is 1) nonnative (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration, and 2) whose introduction causes, or is likely to cause, economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
        
    Inventoried Roadless Areas (IRAs):  Those areas identified in a set of inventoried roadless area maps, contained in Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, dated November 2000, which are held at the National headquarters of the Forest Service, or any update, correction, or revision of those maps.
        
    ISO 14001:  A consensus standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization and adopted by the American National Standards Institute that describes environmental management systems and outlines the elements of an environmental management system (36 CFR 219.16). FSM 1905

  • Land Use Allocation:  The identification in a land use plan of the activities and foreseeable development that are allowed, restricted, or excluded for all or part of the planning area, based on desired future conditions.
        
    Land Use Plan:  A set of decisions that establish management direction for land within an administrative area, as prescribed under the planning provisions of FLPMA; an assimilation of land-use and plan-level decisions developed through the planning process outlined in 43 CFR 1600, regardless of the scale at which the decisions were developed.
        
    Land Use Plan Decision:  Establishes desired outcomes and actions needed to achieve them. Decisions are reached using the planning process in 43 CFR 1600.  When they are presented to the public as proposed decisions, they can be protested to the BLM Director.  They are not appealable to IBLA.
        
    Land Use Planning Base:  The entire collection of land use plan decisions resulting from RMPs, MFPs, planning analyses, the adoption of other agency plans, or any other type of plan where land use-plan-level decisions are reached.
        
    Leasable Minerals:  Minerals such as coal, oil shale, oil and gas, phosphate, potash, sodium, geothermal resources, and all other minerals that may be acquired under the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended.
        
    Locatable Minerals:  A mineral subject to location under the 1872 mining laws.  Examples of such minerals would be gold, silver, copper, and lead as compared to oil and natural gas, which are leasable minerals.

  • Maintenance. The upkeep of the entire forest transportation facility including surface and shoulders, parking and side areas, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient utilization. (36 CFR 212.1)

    Maintenance. The act of keeping fixed assets in acceptable condition. It includes preventive maintenance normal repairs; replacement of parts and structural components, and other activities needed to preserve a fixed asset so that it continues to provide acceptable service and achieves its expected life. Maintenance excludes activities aimed at expanding the capacity of an asset or otherwise upgrading it to serve needs different from, or significantly greater than those originally intended. Maintenance includes work needed to meet laws, regulations, codes, and other legal direction as long as the original intent or purpose of the fixed asset is not changed (Financial Health – Common Definitions for Maintenance and Construction Terms, July 22, 1998).

    Maintenance Level. Designations defined by the Forest Service Handbook (FSH 7709.58 section 12.3) as the level of service provided by, and maintenance required for, a specific road. Maintenance Levels must be consistent with road management objectives and maintenance
    criteria.

    – Level 1 Closed more than 1 year – Intermittent service roads during the time they are closed to vehicular traffic. Basic custodial maintenance is performed to keep damage to adjacent resources to an acceptable level and to perpetuate the road to facilitate future management activities. Emphasis is normally given to maintaining drainage facilities and runoff patterns. Planned road deterioration may occur at this level. Appropriate traffic management strategies are “prohibit” and “eliminate.”

    – Level 2 High-clearance vehicles – Roads open for use by high-clearance vehicles. Passenger car traffic is not a consideration. Traffic is normally minor, usually consisting of one or a combination of administrative, permitted, dispersed recreation, or other specialized uses. Log haul may occur at this level. Appropriate traffic management strategies are either to (1) discourage or prohibit passenger cars or (2) accept or discourage high-clearance vehicles.

    – Level 3 Passenger vehicles – Roads open and maintained for travel by prudent drivers in a standard passenger car. User comfort and convenience are low priorities. Roads in this maintenance level are typically low speeds, single lane with turnouts, and spot surfacing. Some roads may be fully surfaced with either native or processed material. Appropriate traffic management strategies are either “encourage” or “accept.” “Discourage” or “prohibit strategies may be employed for certain classes of vehicles or users.

    – Level 4 Passenger vehicles – Roads that provide a moderate degree of user comfort and convenience at moderate travel speeds. Most roads are double lane and aggregate surfaced. However, some roads may be single lane. Some roads may be paved and/or dust-abated. The most appropriate traffic management strategy is “encourage.” However, the “prohibit” strategy may apply to specific classes of vehicles or users at certain times.

    – Level 5 Passenger vehicles – Roads that provide a high degree of user comfort and convenience. These roads are normally double-lane, paved facilities. Some may be aggregate surfaced and dust-abated The appropriate traffic management strategy is “encourage.”

    Management Decision:  A decision made by the BLM to manage public lands. Management decisions include both land use plan decisions and implementation decisions.

    Minimum Road System. The road system determined to be needed to meet resource and other management objectives adopted in the relevant land and resource management plan, to meet applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, to reflect long-term funding expectations, to ensure that the identified system minimizes adverse environmental impacts associated with road construction, reconstruction, decommissioning, and maintenance (36 CFR 212.5(b)(1)).
        
    Monitoring (Plan Monitoring):  The process of tracking the implementation of land use plan decisions.
        
    Motor vehicle. Any vehicle which is self-propelled, other than:
    (1) A vehicle operated on rails; and
    (2) Any wheelchair or mobility device, including one that is battery-powered, that is designed solely for use by a mobility-impaired person for locomotion, and that is suitable for use in an indoor pedestrian area.
        
    Motor vehicle use map:  A map reflecting designated roads, trails, and areas on an administrative unit or a Ranger District of the National Forest System.
        
    Multi-jurisdictional Planning:  Collaborative planning in which the purpose is to address land use planning issues for an area, such as an entire watershed or other landscape unit, in which there is a mix of public and/or private land ownership and adjoining or overlapping tribal, State, local government, or other Federal agency authorities.

  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969:  A law enacted on January 1, 1970 that established a national policy to maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations of Americans.  It established the Council on Environmental Quality for coordinating environmental matters at the federal level and to serve as the advisor to the President on such matters.  The law made all federal actions and proposals that could have significant impact on the environment subject to review by federal, state, and local environmental authorities. One of the major tenets of NEPA is its emphasis on public disclosure of possible environmental effects of any major action on public lands. Section 102 of NEPA requires a statement of possible environmental effects to be released to the public and other agencies for review and comment.
        
    National Forest Management Act of 1976 (NFMA):  NFMA is the primary statute governing the administration of National Forests. NFMA requires the Secretary of Agriculture to assess forest lands, develop management programs based on multiple-use and sustained yield principles, and implement a Land and Resource Management Plan for each National Forest.
        
    National Forest System Road:  A forest road other than a road which has been authorized by a legally documented right-of-way held by a State, county, or other local public road authority.
        
    National Forest System trail:  A forest trail other than a trail which has been authorized by a legally documented right-of-way held by a State, county, or other local public road authority.
        
    National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Pass:  Covers entrance fees at National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, and at lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Reclamation.
        
    Native (Indigenous) Species:  A species of plant or animal that naturally occurs in an area and that was not introduced by humans.
        
    No Surface Occupancy (NSO):  A fluid minerals leasing constraint that prohibits occupancy or disturbance on all or part of the lease surface to protect special values or uses. Lessees may exploit the fluid mineral resources under the leases restricted by this constraint through use of directional drilling from sites outside the NSO area.
        
    Non-Commercial Vehicle:  A passenger car, van, pickup truck, converted school bus, recreational vehicle, etc., used to enter a Federal recreation site for non-commercial purposes.

    Notice of Intent (NOI):  In NEPA, a NOI is published in the Federal Register as the official agency public announcement that a proposed planning effort is starting. During this part of the planning process, the agency solicits public input to identify major resource issues to be addressed in the proposed plan. At this point the public will have at least 30 days to provide comments pertaining to the area to be addressed in the plan.

  • Objective:  A description of a desired condition for a resource.  Objectives can be quantified and measured and, where possible, have established time frames for achievement.  The objectives for a plan are the means of measuring progress toward achieving or maintaining desired conditions.  Like desired conditions, objectives are aspirations and are not commitments or final decisions approving projects and activities (36 CFR 219.7).
        
    Off-highway vehicle:  Any motorized vehicle designed for or capable of cross-country travel on, or immediately over, land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain; except that such term excludes (A) any registered motorboat, (B) any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle when used for emergency purposes, and any combat or combat support vehicle when used for national defense purposes, and (C) any vehicle whose use is expressly authorized by the respective agency head under a permit, lease, license, or contract.
        
    Open:  Generally, denotes that an area is available for a particular use or uses. Refer to specific program definitions found in law, regulations, or policy guidance for application to individual programs. For example, 43 CFR 8340.0-5 defines the specific meaning of “open” as it relates to OHV use.
        
    Over-snow vehicle:  A motor vehicle that is designed for use over snow and that runs on a track or tracks and/or a ski or skis, while in use over snow.

  • Permitted Use:  The forage allocated by, or under the guidance of, an applicable land use plan for livestock grazing in an allotment under a permit or lease; expressed in Animal Unit Months (AUMs) (43 CFR 4100.0-5).
        
    Permittee:  A person or company permitted to graze livestock on public land.
        
    Petroglyph:  A form of rock art created by incising, scratching or pecking designs into rock surfaces.
        
    Pictograph:  A form of rock art created by applying mineral based or organic paint to rock surfaces.
        
    Planning Analysis:  A process using appropriate resource data and NEPA analysis to provide a basis for decisions in areas not yet covered by an RMP.
        
    Planning Criteria:  The standards, rules, and other factors developed by managers and interdisciplinary teams for their use in forming judgments about decision making, analysis, and data collection during planning.  Planning criteria streamlines and simplifies the resource management planning actions.
        
    Potential Wilderness Area:  An area including those previously identified in the Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, dated November 2000, in a unit plan, or in a land management plan, which remain essentially roadless and undeveloped, and which have not yet been designated as wilderness or for non-wilderness uses by law (FSM 1905).

    Private road. A road under private ownership authorized by an easement to a private party, or a road that provides access pursuant to a reserved or private right.
        
    Provincial Advisory Council (PAC):  see Resource Advisory Council.
        
    Public Land:  Land or interest in land owned by the United States and administered by the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture, except lands located on the Outer Continental Shelf and land held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos.  Examples are National Forests, National Parks and Monuments and National Wildlife Refuges.

    Public Road. A road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public road authority and open to public travel. (23 USC 101(a), 23 CFR 460.2, 23 CFR 660.103, FSM 7705)

  • ROD (Record of Decision):  This type of decision is used when an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been produced. Decisions documented in a Record Of Decision are subject to administrative appeal.
        
    Research and Natural Area (RNA):  Research Natural Areas (RNAs) are areas that contain important ecological and scientific values and are managed for minimum human disturbance.  RNAs are primarily used for non-manipulative research and baseline data gathering on relatively unaltered community types.  Since natural processes are allowed to dominate, RNAs also make excellent controls for similar communities that are being actively managed.  In addition, RNAs provide an essential network of diverse habitat types that will be preserved in their natural state for future generations.
        
    Resource Advisory Council (RAC):  A council established by the Secretary of the Interior to provide advice or recommendations to BLM management.  In some states, Provincial Advisory Councils (PACs) are functional equivalents of RACs.
        
    Resource Use Level:  the level of use allowed within an area.  It is based on the desired outcomes and land use allocations in the land use plan.  Targets or goals for resource use levels are established on an area-wide or broad watershed level in the land use plan.  Site-specific resource use levels are normally determined at the implementation level, based on site-specific resource conditions and needs as determined through resource monitoring and assessments.
        
    Restoration:  The process of reestablishing, to the extent possible, the structure, function, and composition of ecosystems.
        
    Revision:  The process of completely rewriting the land use plan due to changes in the planning area affecting major portions of the plan or the entire plan.
        
    Right-of-Way (ROW):  An easement or permit, which authorizes public land to be used for a specified purpose that generally requires a long narrow strip of land.  Examples are roads, power-lines, pipelines, etc.
        
    Road:  A motor vehicle route over 50 inches wide, unless identified and managed as a trail.
        
    Road construction or reconstruction:  Supervising, inspecting, actual building, and incurrence of all costs incidental to the construction or reconstruction of a road.

    Road Decommissioning. Activities that result in the stabilization and restoration of unneeded roads to a more natural state (36 CFR 212.1), (FSM 7703).

    Roadless Area Conservation Rule of 2001:  A regulation adopted by the Forest Service that generally prohibited road construction and commercial logging within national forest inventoried roadless areas.  The Roadless Rule was repealed and replaced with a voluntary state petition process on May 13, 2005.

    Resource Management Plan (RMP):  The BLM considers resource management plans to be synonymous with land use plans, so the terms may be used interchangeably.  Land use plan decisions made in RMP’s establish goals and objectives for resource management (such as desired future conditions), the measures needed to achieve these goals and objectives, and parameters for using public lands.  Land use planning decisions are usually made on broad scale and customarily guide subsequent site-specific implementation decisions.

    What is an RMP?

    by:  John Stewart
    Natural Resource Consultant
    California Association of 4 Wheel Drive Clubs

    A resource management plan (RMP) is a land use plan which describes broad, multiple-use guidance for managing public land and mineral estate administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The plan is developed with public involvement and potential impacts of the plan are analyzed in an environmental impact statement (EIS) under guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1976 (NEPA).

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) directs the BLM to develop, maintain, and when necessary, to revise land use plans to provide for appropriate use of public land. The plan highlights goals and objectives for resource management and establishes measures needed to achieve those goals and objectives.

    For additional information, see:

    National Environmental Policy Act – 1976 :  http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/wo/Communications_Directorate/legislation.Par.75991.File.dat/nepa25fn.pdf

    Federal Land Policy and Management Act – 1976 :  http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/wo/Communications_Directorate/legislation.Par.3647.File.dat/FLPMA.pdf

  • Scale:  Refers to the geographic area and data resolution under examination in an assessment or planning effort.
        
    Scoping:  Scoping determines the “scope” of the subsequent environmental analysis conducted by an interdisciplinary team of resource specialists.  Scoping is an ongoing process to determine public opinion, receive comments and suggestions, and determine issues during the environmental analysis process. It may involve public meetings, telephone conversations, or letters.
        
    Seismic Exploration:  Seismic exploration remains the most common way to locate sub-surface resources.  The process involves sending sound waves into the earth at one point and recording them at others after having passed through differing geological strata.  There are two common methods utilized today.  One method involves the detonation of small explosive charges.  The other method consists of a truck that drops a huge weight at various intervals.  The data collected is used to show probable sub-surface resource deposits.
        
    Social Science:  The study of society and of individual relationships in and to society, generally including one or more of the academic disciplines of sociology, economics, political science, geography, history, anthropology, and psychology.
        
    Special Area Designations:  A component of the forest plan that identifies specific places within the national forest possessing unique values or characteristics warranting management objectives and guidelines that are more protective or otherwise different from other parts of the plan area.
        
    Special Status Species:  Includes proposed species, listed species, and candidate species under the ESA; State-listed species; and BLM State Director-designated sensitive species (see BLM Manual 6840 – Special Status Species Policy).

    Special Use Authorization: A permit, term permit, lease, or easement which allows occupancy, use, rights, or privileges of National Forest System land. (36 CFR 251.51, 36 CFR 261.2)
        
    Species Viability Requirement:  A provision of the original NFMA regulations that required the Forest Service to maintain sufficient habitat to support viable populations of native and desired non-native vertebrate species, well-distributed in the planning area.
        
    Species of concern:  Species for which the Responsible Official determines that management actions may be necessary to prevent listing under the Endangered Species Act (36 CFR 219.16).
        
    Species of interest:  Species for which the Responsible Official determines that management actions may be necessary or desirable to achieve ecological or other multiple use objectives (36 CFR 219.16).
        
    Standard:  A description of the physical and biological conditions or degree of function required for healthy, sustainable lands (e.g., land health standards).
        
    Standard Amenity Fee:  Fees charged for use of Bureau of Land Management, USDA Forest Serivce, and Bureau of Reclamation sites that have a combination of basic amenities – picnic tables, trash receptacles, toilets, developed parking, interpretive signing and security,  National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes generally cover these fees.
        
    Standard Lease Terms and Conditions:  Areas may be open to leasing with no specific management decisions defined in a Resource Management Plan; however, these areas are subject to lease terms and conditions as defined on the lease form (Form 3100-11, Offer to Lease and Lease for Oil and Gas; and Form 3200-24, Offer to Lease and Lease for Geothermal Resources).
        
    State Implementation Plan (SIP):  A strategic document, prepared by a State (or other authorized air quality regulatory agency) and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which thoroughly describes how requirements of the Clean Air Act will be implemented (including standards to be achieved, control measures to be applied, enforcement actions in case of violation, etc.).
        
    Strategic Plan (BLM Strategic Plan):  A plan that establishes the overall direction for the BLM. This plan is guided by the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, covers a 5-year period, and is updated every 3 years.  It is consistent with FLPMA and other laws affecting the public lands.

    Suitable Timber Land. National Forest system land for which technology is available that will ensure timber production without irreversible resource damage to soils, productivity, or watershed conditions; for which there is reasonable assurance that such lands can be adequately restocked and for which there is management direction that indicates that timber production is an appropriate use of that area.

    Suitable Uses:  Activities and values on national forest lands, such as motorized and non-motorized recreation, livestock grazing, logging, mining, and fish and wildlife habitat, that the forest plan determines to be appropriate and compatible with desired conditions and objectives for certain areas.

  • Temporary road or trail: A road or trail necessary for emergency operations or authorized by contract, permit, lease, or other written authorization that is not a forest road or trail and that is not included in a forest transportation atlas.
        
    Threatened Species:  1) Any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and 2) as further defined by the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
        
    Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL):  An estimate of the total quantity of pollutants (from all sources:  point, non-point, and natural) that may be allowed into waters without exceeding applicable water quality criteria.
     
    Trail: A route 50 inches or less in width or a route over 50 inches wide that is identified and managed as a trail.
        
    Travel management atlas: An atlas that consists of a forest transportation atlas and a motor vehicle use map or maps.

    Travel Management Rule:

    Travel Management Subpart A:  Administration of the Forest Transportation System
    Travel Management Subpart B:  Designation of Roads, Trails and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use
    Travel Management Subpart C:  Use by Over-Snow Vehicles

     Tribe:  See Indian tribe.

  • Unauthorized road or trail: A road or trail that is not a forest road or trail or a temporary road or trail and that is not included in a forest transportation atlas.

  • Vehicle: Any device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported, including any frame, chassis, or body of any motor vehicle, except devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. (36 CFR 261.2)

    Visual Resource Management (VRM):  A system for evaluating the visual resources of a given area and for determining what degree of protection, rehabilitation, or enhancement is desirable and possible.

  • Wilderness Area:  An area of public land designated by an Act of Congress to be protected in its natural condition according to the requirements of the Wilderness Act of 1964 with the following characteristics:  (1) It generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man’s work substantially unnoticeable; (2) It has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfirmed type of recreation; (3) It has at least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and (4) It may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic or historical value (Wilderness Act, Sec. 2(c)).
        
    Wilderness Characteristics:  Identified by congress in the 1964 wilderness act; namely size, naturalness, outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation, and supplemental values such as geological, archeological, historical, ecological, scenic, or other features. It is required that the area possess at least 5,000 acres or more of contiguous or be of a size to make practical its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; be substantially natural or generally appear to have been primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man being substantially unnoticeable; and have either outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation.
        
    Wilderness Inventory Areas (WIA):  These areas are found in Utah that were not made into WSA’s but citizens inventoried and found wilderness characteristics. During the Clinton Administration, the BLM re-inventoried these lands, completed in 1999, and found Wilderness characteristics on these lands.
        
    Wilderness Study Area (WSA):  Created by the BLM through the inventory process of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA), which required the BLM to inventory lands under its management authority for wilderness quality and protect those lands until Congress decides whether or not to designate the land as Wilderness.
        
    Wildland Fire Use (WFU):  The management of naturally-ignited wildland fires to accomplish specific pre-stated resource management objectives in predefined geographic areas outlined in Forest Fire Management Plans. Operational management is described in the Wildland Fire Implementation Plan. Wildland fire use is not to be confused with “fire use,” which is a broader term encompassing more than just wildland fires.

  • ACEC – Area of Critical Environmental Concern

    ADR – Alternative Dispute Resolution

    APD – Application for Permit to Drill

    AUM – Animal Unit Month

    BLM – Bureau of Land Management

    CA – Conservation Agreement

    CEQ – Council on Environmental Quality

    CFR – Code of Federal Regulations

    CS – Conservation Strategy

    CX (or CE) – Categorical Exclusion

    DEIS – Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    DM – Departmental Manual

    DNA – Documentation of Land Use Plan Conformance and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Adequacy

    DOI – Department of the Interior

    DR – Decision Record (for an EA)

    EA – Environmental Assessment

    EIS – Environmental Impact Statement

    EPA – Environmental Protection Agency

    ESA – Endangered Species Act

    FACA – Federal Advisory Committee Act

    FR – Federal Register

    FWS – Fish and Wildlife Service

    FLPMA – Federal Land Policy and Management Act

    FONSI – Finding of No Significant Impact

    GIS – Geographic Information System

    IBLA – Interior Board of Land Appeals

    IMP – Interim Management Policy

    LAC – Limits of Acceptable Change

    LUP – Land use plan

    MFP – Management Framework Plan

    MOU – Memorandum of Understanding

    NOA – Notice of Availability

    NOI – Notice of Intent

    NEPA – National Environmental Policy Act

    NMFS – National Marine Fisheries Service

    NPS – National Parks Service

    NRA – National Recreation Area

    OHV – Off-Highway Vehicle

    PAC – Provincial Advisory Council

    POD – Plan of Development

    RAC – Resource Advisory Council

    RMP – Resource Management Plan

    RNA – Research and Natural Area

    ROD – Record of Decision (for an EIS)

    ROS – Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

    SRMA – Special Recreation Management Area

    T&E – Threatened and Endangered

    TMDL – Total Maximum Daily Load

    U.S.C. – United States Code

    USFS – United States Forest Service

    VRM – Visual Resource Management

    WSA – Wilderness Study Area

    COMMON BLM ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
    https://eplanning.blm.gov/epl-front-office/projects/lup/22652/34862/36286/1.4_CCD_Acronyms.pdf

    COMMON BLM ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS FOR FINAL EIS
    https://eplanning.blm.gov/epl-front-office/projects/lup/9153/58496/63915/13_Acronyms-Glossary_FEIS_052115.pdf

  • Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area – DEIS ;  CHAPTER 8.0 GLOSSARY AND LIST OF ACRONYMS
    11chap8-glossary.pdf

  • Roadless Area Conservation – Final EIS
    FEIS Glossary.pdf

  • TrailTerminology2005.pdf
        
    Recommended Standardized TRAIL TERMINOLOGY for Use in Colorado with TOOL DESCRIPTIONS & USES
        
    Produced by Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI)
    Funded in part by Great Outdoors Colorado (GOCO)
    through the Colorado State Parks Trails Program.
    First Printing 2005
        
    This document, Recommended Standardized Trail Terminology for Use in Colorado, was compiled by a committee of representatives from all trail user groups in Colorado with the intent to provide a comprehensive but not exhaustive list of trail terms and tools specific to trail work. All trail user groups can use this document as a method for increasing communication through the use of common terms.

    The committee consciously selected terms and tools that would be used in a typical trail construction, maintenance, or teaching situation. Related terms are in parenthesis following the term’s definition. The tool list is separate and follows the terms.

    The committee relied heavily on existing sources, with special thanks to Jim Schmid, Bureau of Land Management for providing the majority of the terms. Other significant sources for information came from the South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism; International Mountain Bicycling Association; Off Highway Motorcycle & ATV Trails Guidelines for Design, Construction, Maintenance and User Satisfaction, 2nd Ed. by Joe Wernex; and Crew Leader Manual, 5th Ed., Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado.

    To assure that the terms and tools were appropriate for trail user groups in Colorado, the committee distributed the list for statewide review prior to publication. Reviewers were asked to critique the terms and definitions, and suggest additional terms to the list.

  • cal_land_codes.htm
        
    California Land Law
        
    I created this page because of my interest in land surveying and land law.  I am not a lawyer.  If you need legal advice about a land law question I suggest you call a real estate attorney.  What I have listed here are excerpts from case law that I researched at a law library.  If you have a bet with someone about a California Land Law question you will only lose your money here if my web page is the authority you cite.  If, however, you share my interest in the law and land surveying, this could be a starting place for further research.  Be forewarned that I have not Shepardized all the cases cited.  Some decisions and statements listed here may have been overturned and are no longer true in California.  Hopefully, I have kept these to a minimum.  Enjoy the rest.

    This site was created on 03-12-00 by Michael Wartenberg, Calif. PLS 7007 and last edited on 07-31-01

  • Filename:  allgloss.pdf
        
    GLOSSARIES OF BLM SURVEYING AND MAPPING TERMS
        
    PREPARED BY THE
    CADASTRAL SURVEY TRAINING STAFF
    DENVER SERVICE CENTER
    1980
    SEARCHABLE PDF 2003
        
    PREFACE
    The original edition of this glossary was developed for use by trainee cadastral surveyors during the cadastral survey professional series of training courses. This edition is intended for use by all BLM personnel and should be of particular value to newly hired cadastral and cartographic personnel. For the sake of clarity and exactness, many first edition definitions have been modified. The definitions are not meant to conflict with those in other glossaries, but since the glossary is for BLM cadastral personnel, some terms will have a meaning unique to BLM cadastral surveys.

  • Title:  PEOPLE’S GLOSSARY OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT TERMS
    Filename:  Ecosystem management terms.pdf

  • California Off-Highway Motor Vehicle Recreation Division Manual for Grants and Cooperative Agreements Program – Glossary of Terms
    glossary-ca-ohmvr-4_07_06.pdf

  • The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976
    http://archive.sharetrails.org/uploads/FLPMA/FLPMA.pdf

  • A Citizen’s Guide to the NEPA: Having Your Voice Heard
    https://ceq.doe.gov/get-involved/citizens_guide_to_nepa.html